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Friday, August 21, 2020
This paper is planned for examining the book Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins. In this work, he investigates the hidden reasons for World War I, its impacts on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s encounters, and the drawn out impacts of this political and social catastrophe.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This subject has been inspected by different students of history, however Modris Eksteins adopts a somewhat unique strategy to this inquiry. The creator centers around different perspectives. Specifically, he talks about the way of life of the western human advancement; besides, he specifies that war, penance, and viciousness were indistinguishable pieces of this culture (Eksteins 15). He attempts to exhibit the connection among innovation and the political history of the western world. Additionally, the essayist examines the idea of political unions existing toward the start of the twent ieth century. Along these lines, the researcher endeavors to recognize the thought processes that could have incited different states to go into this military clash. This source is likewise planned for inspecting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of this war. This is the reason he centers around different artistic sources just as journals. One of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s aims is to inspect the manner by which officers pondered this war. This is the reason Modris Eksteins specifies the purported Christmas Truce (Eksteins 97). Moreover, the author talks about the ramifications of World War I. For example, this book illuminates the ascent of National Socialism in Germany and Italy (Eksteins 321). Besides, Modris EksteinsÃ¢â¬â¢s book shows how this military clash prepared to World War II.Advertising Looking for exposition on history? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, he alludes to the Treaty of Versailles and its confinements (Ekste ins 253). These are a portion of the principle angles that can be distinguished. This book doesn't follow an exacting sequential example. Also, Modris Eksteins can draw the associations between the occasions that don't appear to be connected. In general, the researcher centers around such subjects as culture, endeavors to alter the expression of war, and post-war convictions and mentalities. They are basic for depicting the historical backdrop of the twentieth century. The researcher takes a gander at different nations, however he takes the best enthusiasm for the social and political history of Germany. One of the most significant topics analyzed by the essayist is the quirks of the Western culture. Toward the start of the book, Modris Eksteins examines the well known artful dance The Rite of Spring formed by Igor Stravinsky. He draws in the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ consideration regarding the possibility that the possibility of human penance assumes a significant job in this work of art. A s he would like to think, Ã¢â¬Å"the festivity of life through conciliatory deathÃ¢â¬ speaks to the soul of the twentieth century (Eksteins 15). Eksteins contends that the pioneer workmanship, which started to rise during that period, Ã¢â¬Å"transcended reason, instruction, and good purposeÃ¢â¬ (Eksteins 15). Also, it didn't depict war and enduring as something incredible. More probable, war and viciousness were celebrated. This is one of the primary perspectives that can be singled out. However, it is critical to recollect that Modris Eksteins doesn't completely clarify the causal relations between different works of art made during that period and the military clash which inundated the whole Europe.Advertising We will compose a custom paper test on Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, one can likewise contend that culture basically mirrored the perspectives and estimations of numerous individuals. It probably won't be the main impetus of history.This is one of the constraints that ought not be ignored. The author sees culture as one of the variables that could have incited a few countries to enter this war. For example, he notes for Germans, this war was a method of extending the impact of their way of life (Eksteins 77). German savvy people underlined the significance of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s inward opportunity. As they would like to think, this quality recognized Germans among other European countries. Also, it is essential to recall that numerous German craftsmen and scholars required a pioneer who could accomplish significance for the nation (Eksteins 315). The blend of these perspectives incredibly added to the brutality submitted by the German state. By the by, this view on World War I totally prohibits monetary and geopolitical contemplations. Moreover, Modris Eksteins doesn't show why comparable inclinations were not seen in different nations like France or England. Along these line s, a portion of his decisions can be questioned in light of the fact that the researcher bars the models that negates his contentions. This is one of the focuses that can be made. There is another significant subject which ought not be neglected. Specifically, one ought to talk about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavors to accommodate the experience of war with their qualities, customs, or conventions. The creator shows how German, British or French fighters endeavored to make this presence increasingly adequate or decent. Along these lines, they endeavored to show how silly this war had been. This is one of the issues that Modris Eksteins centers on.Advertising Searching for article on history? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More For instance, he depicts a short ceasefire during the Christmas of 1914 (Eksteins 97). This occasion has been depicted in scholarly and scholastic sources. To inspect the encounters of officers, Modris Eksteins looks at different essential sources. Among them one can separate the acclaimed novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque. The creator talks about different sources which can show how individuals could conform to war. By and large, this methodology is useful for understanding the hardships that troopers needed to survive. Aside from that, this point of view is helpful in light of the fact that it empowers the perusers to get familiar with singular stories that are frequently neglected by antiquarians. This piece of Modris EksteinsÃ¢â¬â¢ book is presumably the most grounded one. The post-war presence of individuals is the topic that Modris Eksteins looks at. The creator concedes that the finish of World War I didn't resolve a large number and potential clas hes inside Europe. He perceives the confinements of the Versailles Treaty which put the weight of obligation regarding this war just on Germany (Eksteins 253). One can even say that it was a ceasefire which just deferred war. This assessment is shared by different students of history. Modris Eksteins is very right in distinguishing the downside of this arrangement. Much consideration is likewise paid to the way of life which started to create during that period. All things considered, it reflected peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement for harmony and strength. However, there are some significant patterns that ought to be considered. The creator talks about the admiration of innovation and will. This contention is especially significant in the event that one talks about Charles Lindbergh who turned out to be very renowned for his direct departure from Long Island to France (Eksteins 243). The primary issue is that such mentalities added to the admiration of individuals who asserted to groups t he quality of will. Among them, one can surely recognize Adolf Hitler and Mussolini. Somewhat, they needed to be seen as perfect individuals who reserved a privilege to administer or even curb others. These models can be exceptionally persuading, yet this line of thinking isn't material to such nations as England or the United States in which there were no imperious pioneers. This is one of the disadvantages that ought not be neglected. It is conceivable to state that the creator needs to draw associations between the way of life of innovation and political history of western human advancement. One of the central matters is that that innovation transformed the political history of the twentieth century into a bad dream. In any case, he wouldn't like to concede the possibility that innovation was only a reaction to the abhorrences of wars that broke out all the time. This is one of the subtleties that ought to be distinguished. Also, the researcher wouldn't like to consider the conte ntions between and inside different nations which could have prompted numerous military showdowns. As it has been said previously, one can't ignore financial and political history of western states. The social history of this period is surely significant, yet it can't be isolated from zones of human movement. All in all, this book can be of incredible enthusiasm to individuals, who are keen on the starting points of World War I. This book is significant for delineating the mentalities and convictions of individuals who inhabited the start of the twentieth century. Additionally, this source might be useful for looking at the mentalities of individuals during the period between the two wars. In any case, the creator makes wide speculations that are not completely validated. All things considered, these constraints don't sabotage the potential estimation of this book for an extraordinary number of perusers. Works Cited Eksteins, Modris. Rituals of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age,Ã New York: Mariner Books, 2000. Print. This exposition on Rites of Spring by Modris Eksteins was composed and presented by client Axel C. to help you with your own examinations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; nonetheless, you should refer to it as needs be. You can give your paper here.
Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 11:35 PM
Monday, July 13, 2020
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Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 4:41 AM
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
On 1 September 1923, the day that the Great Kanto earthquake struck the regions of Tokyo and Yokohama, Junichiro Tanizaki was staying in at Hakone, a hot springs resort west of Tokyo. Years later he would admit that, almost before he thought to feel concern for those dear to him, a perverse surge of excitement arose in him: Tokyo, too long held in the shadows of its Edo past would be reborn, Ã¢â¬Å"Tokyo will be better for this!Ã¢â¬ ¦I imagined the grandeur of the new metropolis, and all the changes that would come in customs and manners as well.Ã¢â¬ Now had come the great blow to usher in modernity, a magnificent city parallel to those found in the West would Tokyo become. Such a vision was understandably attractive to a young Tanizaki, whoseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Unlike much of his earlier writing which deals with the Ã¢â¬Ëallure of the WestÃ¢â¬â¢ in unquestioning terms, Ã¢â¬ËNaomiÃ¢â¬â¢, whilst continuing to locate exotic space in the West, does so from a criti cal perspective. This is no more evident than in the confessional tone of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s opening paragraphs: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦As Japan grows increasingly cosmopolitan, Japanese and foreigners are eagerly mingling with one another; all sorts of new doctrines and philosophies are being introduced; and both men and women are adopting [emphasis mine] up-to-date western fashions. No doubt, the times being what they are, the sort of marital relationship that we ve had, unheard of until now, will begin to turn up on all sides.Ã¢â¬ Kawai Joji, the first-person narrator of Ã¢â¬ËNaomiÃ¢â¬â¢ begins his tale in this fashion, offering the reader a relevant historical framework in which to place the story of his life. However, the central motifs of the tale soon take form in the early relationship of Joji and the object of his affection, Naomi, a Ã¢â¬Å"buddingÃ¢â¬ hostess at a cafe. The protagonist declares unabashedly that what first drew him to his young wife was neither her appearance nor character, but her distinctly western-sounding name, a Ã¢â¬Å"sophisticated nameÃ¢â¬ when romanised. Once he learns of her Western name, the girl takes on the appearance of a Westerner in his mind, her image is likened throughout the text to the motion-picture actress Mary Pickford. Naomi becomes a fleshly Ã¢â¬Å"signifierÃ¢â¬ of the West and thus he mustShow MoreRelatedManÃ¢â¬â¢yÃ shÃ « vs. KokinshÃ « and Their Significance1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe ManÃ¢â¬â¢yÃ shÃ « and the KokinshÃ « are perhaps among the most revered and earliest collections of Japanese poetry. The ManÃ¢â¬â¢yÃ shÃ «, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves (or Generations),Ã¢â¬ is believed to be compiled by the poet Ã Å'tomo no Yakamochi sometime after AD 759 during the Nara Period. It contains over 4,000 poems, mostly tanka, that date before the end of the eighth century, and the writings are somewhat divided chronologically into four periods. Almost two centuries later, the Kokin waka shÃ «Read MoreThe Use of Setting in A Pair of Tickets and Everything that Rises Must Converge739 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Use of Setting in A Pair of Tickets and Everything that Rises Must Converge All Stories take place at a certain time and place, a certain setting. 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It is a period between ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s bitter victory in Sino-Japanese War and Communist PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s takeover of the country, establishing the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China; while the former, lasted 8 years, caused moreRead MoreThe Graduation Standards From Cherry Creek School1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslanguages from the electives category to a core class on par and equal to English, math, science and social studies. This will make foreign language(s) a mandatory class in order to graduate. As an aspiring educator and polyglot (I speak English, French, Japanese, and I have an advanced understanding of German and am learning Korean), I only wish to give my future students and all future students the best possible opportunities to excel and succeed in life. The 2015-2016 school year finds the United StatesRead MoreEmpire of the Sun907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Second World War. Jamie is taken prisoner by the Japanese, and taken to an Internment camp, which is the main setting of the film. 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The play hosts more than 60 characters, reflectingRead MoreAmy Tan s The Joy Luck Club And The Kitchen God s Wife Essay1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshad experienced a rough childhood until she later became successful. Both of her parents, John and Daisy Tan, are Chinese immigrants at the time she is born, since they were fleeing the war back in China. As Tan grows up, her parents and Chinese culture are a large influence in her life. Amy Tan, whose name is An-Mei in Chinese, is expected to earn good grades and follow her Chinese heritage from her parents. As time passed, many hardships came to light, as her beloved father and her older brother
Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 6:17 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Procrastination Procrastination is the act or habits of putting things off till the end out of laziness. Almost every student knows this dreaded word. They know if it becomes a habit, disaster happens with a sharp decline in school grades. But what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that procrastinating can actually benefit you in school. It can make you work harder, faster, and more efficiently on school assignments. Even life skills in the real world can be created from procrastinating. Procrastination can actually help you work harder, faster, and more efficiently. It sounds like an impossible thing, however if youÃ¢â¬â¢re like me or any other person that wants a fairly good mark on the next assignment, procrastinating can help you. While yourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It actually helps you, because it gives that need of drive to actually still maintain a good mark on it. Efficiency comes in when you have your daily homework piled on to your assignment, the need to get the assignment done kicks in. You will feel less of a need to do other things that you normally do, and cut down on the breaks, including the old rest up and watch TV, one. Also essential life skills in the real world become developed through procrastinating. In the busy world of work, everyone knows that that boss of yours will always set impossible deadlines. The knowing of having to get it done perfectly and fast is always on the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. When already experienced through procrastinating, you will already know the field of trying to cram a lot of work into a very little time frame. Procrastination can honestly boast you to higher levels of achievement. It makes you nervous and deadlines will be hanging from your head. It helps set a planning stage for you, and makes you aware of all the other tasks that is needed to be completed. The management of time will also be used. Time managing of what to do first and last including dividing the assignment into steps, or knowing what to do to get the best result within a smaller amount of time is very handy in the feature. This habit is not so dreaded at all. I feel that procrastinating isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all that bad, and actually benefits you. Like I said, it givesShow MoreRelatedProcrastination : The Problem Of Procrastination Essay1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMany people believe that procrastination is derived completely from laziness but the culprit could be multiple things, including perfectionism. This can become a huge problem for perfectionists, especially perfectionist students. They most likely will overthink projects and put off getting started because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re afraid they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to make them as perfect as they want them to be. Luckily this is a common issue among students and there are many different techniques to cope with it. 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These include the reasons for procrastinating, some symptoms of procrastination, and how to cure procrastination, but first, let me explain what procrastination is. Procrastination, though not officially classified as such, is a complex psychological behavior that affectsRead MoreProcrastination On College Students : Procrastination 2056 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesProcrastination in College Writing Out of all of the different questions I could think of regarding writing among college students and how each individual goes about doing their work in different ways, I decided the best topic that I could focus on was procrastination. Procrastination on college campuses seems to be a force of nature in and of itself, and seems to be prevalent in almost every studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic affairs. 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It may interfere with our personal or academic success. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; There are those of us who wait until the due date is a day away. I am not talking about making sure the money is in the bank. I am talking about putting it off because it is a tedious chore that we do not enjoy doing. ProcrastinationRead More Procrastination Essays932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesobjectives in your life which can effect others. Procrastination is almost like a drug in your life, because once you start doing it a little bit, it slowly adds up to a dependency that you will find to be common habit. Although this is what we all perceive procrastination to be bad, there are some benefits to it. It can have beneficial impact on how you take pressure, or how well you can act when time is limited. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Procrastination is something that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t naturally haveRead MoreProcrastination Essay982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI have many flaws, one of which being procrastination. Procrastination has been a flaw of mine since I was three years old just learning to tie my shoe. When my dad told me that we were going to learn to tie my shoes today I would says something like, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m HungryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel too good todayÃ¢â¬ , and I would make these excuses up all day until it was bedtime so by then it was too late to tie my shoes. Now just like avoiding and putting off tying my shoes I also put off my bedtime. As soon as myRead MoreThe Causes Of Procrastination815 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProcrastination is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. It is a common issue most Americans face today. Procrastination can be argued whether or not if itÃ¢â¬â¢s caused by choice. There are various factors that lead to procr astination such as; our being brain programmed to procrastinate, feeling like you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in the right frame of mind to do a particular task, and the lack of self-confidence. Procrastination doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen just because, it is a result of our brain being programmedRead MoreEssay On Procrastination1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I have a ton of homework to do, but letÃ¢â¬â¢s go hang out anyways!Ã¢â¬ This is an example of procrastination. Procrastinating is an action of delaying or postponing something. The problems of procrastinating effects a lot of students in college and can sometimes keep them from receiving better grades on their assignments. Procrastination affects around 90 percent of college students. (qtd in Hubbard) Procrastinating occurs when students feel lack of motivation, not having accountability for their Ã¢â¬Å"extra
Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 11:06 PM
The Dirty Truth on Brave New World Essay Topics The 30-Second Trick for Brave New World Essay Topics Completely free Brave New World essay samples are offered on FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. Essays shouldn't be written carelessly. Brave New World isn't a work without flaws. B. Control must appear to be magnanimous. Take a look at our Brave New World essay if you would like to learn about interaction of women and men in the novel. Women do not need to deliver babies. Relationships between women and men are different. Rate the equality of women and men in Brave New World. In terms of art, people don't make it. Happiness isn't just achieved by conditioning but in addition by the usage of a drug named Soma, or the ideal pleasure drug that supplies a mindless, inauthentic happiness, which would make the people comfortable with their deficiency of freedom. People don't require a repressive external force as they're weird to repress themselves. Therefore, there's no cause for fear. There's no need to consider about feelings both oneself and others. It isn't a true happiness. Sex is regarded as recreation and there's no immorality in orgies. Human individuals in the present world aren't born equal. For a lengthier essay on this subject, think about the methods by which the ideas of the happiness in Brave New World are connected with consumption and the way this society is trying to create a consumer utopia. In many ways, it is almost a story of survival not survival as opposed to the natural world, but survival of the human race, of individuals trying to live in a world where the individual spirit is considered nonexistent. Although nearly all of the significant characters have some bodily or personality trait which makes them unconventional, the majority of them don't emphasize or exercise their difference in a manner that challenges the reigning order. The purpose of establishing a new type of relations between women and men in Hawksley is to steer clear of sufferings and intrigues which often occur in relationships between genders and keep them from effective performing of their duties for the interest of the World State. The interaction between women and men occur just on the physical level for satisfying the simple human demand for pleasure and is known as the mutual use of one another. Nevertheless, the males aren't sterilized. The better part of the population is broken into classes and nobody can think for themselves. The capacity to communicate with the expert also enables you to follow up on the advancement of the paper. Some insist on using the exact same content no matter the consequences involved. Furthermore, the most recent technologies made the practice of reproduction a lot simpler and more effective. A specific interest arises around the problem of women and men relations. Alongside the topics, you'd come across loads of papers free of charge. Every time you make an attempt to sit down to compose the essay examples, you wind up pre-occupied with different things affecting the caliber of work that you write. The main reason for this is to make sure that all papers are written with the right academic language including good use of phrases and structuring of sentences. Therefore, there's no need to perceive distinctive realities and societal orders hostile. The body was altered to create the state function more smoothly. It is essential for humans to get their own experiences throughout the plan of nature. An individual who is courageous in the face of ethical challenges does the appropriate thing even if it is not popular. Brave New World Essay Topics Help! It's important to set a lot of work into these steps of your task too as a way to succeed. All you will need is get inspired by one of the subsequent topics and just begin writing. You should have your reasons, and our principal concern is that you wind up getting an excellent grade. The issue here is that you're most likely to be awarded a bad grade which you did not mean to have in the very first place.
Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 7:28 AM
Thursday, April 23, 2020
This assignment will outline the beginnings of sociological theory including historical development of the main theories, namely functionalism and Marxism, and a view of interactionism. The social context in which each of these theories emerged will be detailed with inclusion of possible effects of the social issues at the time. It is often said that sociology is the Ã¢â¬Ëscience of societyÃ¢â¬â¢. Society is commonly seen as the people and institutions, and the relationships between them. The patterns formed by relationships among people, groups, and institutions for the Ã¢â¬Ësocial structureÃ¢â¬â¢ of a society. A series of political upheavals that were instigated as a result of the French Revolution in 1789 created social chaos and many early social theorists sought to analyse societal behaviour in order to ascertain whether the behaviour was a result of the unrest, or whether the political and social chaos was resultant of predetermined or learned behaviour patterns in the individual. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociological Theory or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This may have been an attempt at returning to old order or, more likely, an attempt to establish a new order in the modern society that was emerging. Functionalism sees society as a social system based on Ã¢â¬ËconsensusÃ¢â¬â¢. It stems from the assumption that society has certain basic needs which must be met if it is to survive. The most important being social order. Sociologists sought to answer such issues as what social order is based on, and how social order is possible. It is assumed by functionalists that a certain level of cooperation is needed which would be made possible by adherence to social norms and values. To ensure these norms and values are followed sociologists theorise that methods of Ã¢â¬Ësocial controlÃ¢â¬â¢ are implemented. Examples of formal methods of social control are Educational establishments, police force, and government and informal control can be family, peer pressure and media. The acknowledged Ã¢â¬Ëfounding fatherÃ¢â¬â¢ of Functionalism in modern sociology was Emile Durkheim. Durkheim was greatly influenced by philosopher Auguste Comte who was in turn cited with founding the Ã¢â¬ËpositivismÃ¢â¬â¢ movement, and DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s sociological reflections were first expressed in The Division of Labour in Society (1893) and Suicide (1897). In this view, ethical and social structures were endangered by technology and mechanization. The industrial revolution in particular had a massive effect on the transformation of western societies, from largely rural and agricultural communities to predominantly industrial systems. Within this new society a few tended to profit greatly whilst the peasants who had left agriculture for factory work found only low wages, bad treatment, and poor living conditions due to such a massing of humanity and industrial waste. Accompanying these issues were a long list of problems created by this urbanisation which attracted the attention of early sociologists such as Durkheim. The division of labour produced alienation among workers, and the increased prosperity of the late 19th century generated greed and passions that threatened the equilibrium of society. Durkheim drew attention to anomie, or social disconnectedness, and studied suicide as a decision to renounce life. Following the Dreyfus Affair, a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s which involved the wrongful conviction of Jewish military officer Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) for treason. Durkheim came to regard education and religion as the most potent means of reforming humanity and moulding new social institutions. His The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) is an anthropological study centring largely on symbolism of religion and the origins and functions of this, which Durkheim saw as expressing the collective conscience of a society and thus producing social solidarity. DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s functionalist theories were carried on and expanded throughout the 20th century, and theorists such as Talcott Parsons and his protige Robert K. Merton in the shape of structural functionalism, which began form the so-called problem of social order and posed the question of how society would hold together when all the individuals within it are self-interested and pursue their own wants and needs, often at the expense of others. However a reaction against the industrial system and capitalism led to the emergence of various Ã¢â¬ËconflictÃ¢â¬â¢ theories, and the most well-known of these is Ã¢â¬ËMarxism. This theory is similar in some ways to functionalism in that it sees society as a system and human behaviour to some extent is a response to that system. As the moniker suggests, conflict rather than consensus is the driving force behind this theory. Social groups are in conflict since their interests are in opposition and social order tends to be imposed by the powerful in society rather than encouraged and agreed by society as a whole. Some theorists such as propose that the concept of ideology is important to society. The ideology, or set of beliefs and values can be used to distort reality and ensure members of society see their world in terms of the ideology rather than the so-called truth of oppression and exploitation. This in turn would lead to social order to to a lack of awareness and pacivity of society. Marxism emerged as an alternative vision of a workers paradise, in which wealth was equitably distributed and was founded by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. This theory proposed freedom and equality for the Ã¢â¬ËbourgeoiseÃ¢â¬â¢ or working class. Marx theorised that the capitalist state would eventually succumb to revolution and a new socialist equilibrium would be introduced. This would do away with the haves and have-nots and a classless society would be born. In contrast to Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢ theories, Max Weber saw class conflict as less significant and in WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s view economic factors are important, but ideas and values can also help to bring about social change. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) proposes that religious values were of fundamental importance in creating a capitalistic outlook. Unlike other early sociologists Wever argued that social action should be studied and meaning sought in individual actions. However, the interactions between people within society and social interactions should be considered. George Herbert Mead (1863-1891) is credited with laying the foundations for an approach to sociology called Ã¢â¬Ësymbolic interactionismÃ¢â¬â¢. One of his most famous books, Mind, Self, and Society ( ) is often taken as a guide for the symbolic interactionist approach. Along with Mead, two other important early sociologists who shaped the interactionist tradition were Charles Horton Cooley and William Isaac Thomas. The most influential contributor to the symbolic interactionist tradition was Herbert Blumer, who coined the perspectiveÃ¢â¬â¢s label in 1937. BlumerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Symbolic Interactionism (Ã ) serves as another foundational work for the perspective, and Irving GoffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s studies of mental institutions can be seen as one of the most successful interactionist studies. Goffman looked at the processes of stigmatization and the ways in which people resent their selves in social encounters. Whilst symbolic interactionism hovered on the fringes of sociological theo ry throughout the 20th century, it became prominent as a theoretical perspective in its own right during the 1960s and this, along with functionalism and conflict theory, is now regarded as one of the three distinctive models for understanding social life. Interactionists often reject the idea that social structures exist objectively and tend to dismiss them in this theory. In contrast to functionalism and conflict theory, symbolic Interactionism focuses of micro level interactions and the ways in which meanings are constructed and transmitted and in doing so it accentuates how symbols, interaction, and human agency serve as the cornerstones of social life Mead argued that the individual self is in fact a Ã¢â¬Ësocial selfÃ¢â¬â¢ produced during interaction processes rather than being biologically given. MeadÃ¢â¬â¢s theory traces the emergence of self through a series of stages in childhood and his ideas of the social self underpins interactionist research Interactionists stressed that sociologists could best understand social lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s core features by taking the role of the individuals or groups they were studying, particularly by engaging in participant observation. By the 1980s mainstream sociology had accepted much of the core of the symbolic interactionist approach, with its emphases on meaning, agency, and the interpretive analysis of interactional processes, as a legitimate and central part of the discipline. Thus, interactionism no longer represented a distinctive oppositional perspective as it had previously. In recent decades interactionism has grown in a number of new directions. With respect to methodology, its approach has broadened to include contextualized discourse analysis, ethnographic observation, content analysis, textual analysis, performance studies, and autoethnography. Interactionism has also become a more prominent perspective in a diverse array of disciplines. Another interactionist perspective worth noting is that of feminist theories. The history of feminist politics and theory is often cited as consisting of three Ã¢â¬Å"waves. Ã¢â¬ First-wave being womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The second-wave feminism is associated with the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation movements of the 1960s and 1970s where feminists began concentrating on less Ã¢â¬Å"officialÃ¢â¬ barriers to gender equality, addressing issues like sexuality, reproductive rights, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles and labor in the home, and patriarchal culture and finally, third-wave feminism is associated with feminist politics and movements that began in the 1980s and continue on to today. This emerged out of a critique of the politics of the second wave, as many feminists felt that earlier generations had over-generalized the experiences of white, middle-class, heterosexual women and ignored (and even suppressed) the viewpoints of women of colour, the poor, gay, lesbian, and transgender people, and women from the non-Western world. Feminist social theory has influenced and been influenced by the agendas and struggles of each of these waves. Ã¢â¬Å"First-waveÃ¢â¬ theorists like Mary Wollstonecraft and Susan B. Anthony were influential for their focus on how womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of legal rights contributed to their social demotion, exclusion, and suffering. Ã¢â¬Å"Second-waveÃ¢â¬ theorists like Betty Friedan and Andrea Dworkin were prominent for their focus on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality, reproduction, and the social consequences of living in a patriarchal culture. And Ã¢â¬Å"third-waveÃ¢â¬ theorists like Judith Butler and Gayatri Spivak are significant for critiquing the idea of a universal experience of womanhood and drawing attention to the sexually, economically, and racially excluded. Moreover, feminist social theorists in each wave have critiqued the male biases implicit in social theory itself, helping to construct social theory that draws on rather than excludes the experiences of women. Conclusion Ultimately, if feminism, broadly understood, is concerned with improving the conditions of women in society, feminist social theory is about developing ideas, concepts, philosophies, and other intellectual programs that help meet that agenda. Feminist social theory, like any theoretical tradition, is best seen as a continuing conversation of many voices and viewpoints. But feminist concerns that filtered into early sociology only on the margins. In spite of their marginal status, early women sociologists like Harriet Martineau and Marianne Weber wrote a significant body of theory that is being rediscovered today. This is in contrast to functionalism where moderns theorists are The ideas of sociologists such as Marx, Durkheim and Weber were formed during times of great social, political and economic change which their prespectives sough to understand. But sociological theory can
Posted by Alvina Woodworth at 9:09 PM